アーキエイド、発災4周年のステートメント

四度目の3月11日をむかえて

東日本大震災の発災から4年が過ぎました。 被害に遭われた皆様にあらためて心よりお見舞い申し上げます。

被災地では多くの復興計画が着工に漕ぎ着け、中には移転を完了し新たな暮らしを始めた地域があります。しかしながら復興の進捗を被災地全体で俯瞰してみると、原発事故の影響で避難が続く福島県の一部を除いても、住まいの移転のための防災集団移転促進事業(高台移転・内陸移転)の完了率は戸数ベースで2割前後、土地区画整理事業の完了率は1割にも満たない状況です。また、災害公営住宅は3万戸が計画されていますが、完了率は2割に満たず、未だ多くの方が仮設住宅での生活を余儀なくされています。

アーキエイドが取り組んできたいくつかの先駆的プロジェクトも徐々に具体的な姿を現し始めています。建築家個人個人がその職能を通して出来ることを考え、発災直後から被災地に寄り添い多種多様なプロジェクトを立ち上げてきました。プロジェクトの多くは地域をリサーチすることから始まり、被災住民と共に地域の将来を見据えた復興ビジョンを描くものでした。今も多くの建築家たちがそのビジョンの実現に向けた活動を継続しています。

発災2年目からは政府の復興事業が本格的に始動し巨大なシステムが動き出しました。中央政府から被災自治体へというトップダウン型の復興計画は、スピードと引き換えに画一的なテンプレートによる応急的な対症療法になりがちでした。それに対し、アーキエイドのプロジェクトは、地域ごとの特性を踏まえ、震災前から顕在化してきていた課題も含めて横断的に解決するボトムアップ型の支援を目指してきました。 4年間の支援の成果は、地域に則した高台移転地や建築物、未来を担う人材や産業、そして記憶の再生といった様々な姿かたちを成しはじめています。その達成は、この活動年次報告書とウェブサイトに報告されているとおりです。

震災の5年目に向かい、膨大な復興事業によるハード整備が粛々と行なわれていく中、地域の重点課題はハードからソフトへと移りつつあり、これまで以上に地域に根付いた活動とその担い手が求められています。一方で、震災直後から復興に尽力してきた多くの支援組織が、その役割を全うして地域の人々へバトンを渡し、被災地からの戦略的撤退をはじめています。 アーキエイドもまた、一つひとつのプロジェクトが地域に定着していくのに伴い、プラットフォームとしての役割のひとつの区切りを考えるタイミングを迎えているようにも思われます。

昨年、政府が南海トラフ地震に対する被害想定を発表しました。最悪のシナリオでの死者数は33万人と、東日本大震災の10倍以上にのぼります。政府は10年間でこの被害想定の8割を減らす数値目標を掲げていますが、それでも今次災害の3倍の数値です。アーキエイドには実践を通して得た震災知識が集積されています。これらの知識をレビューし次世代へ引き継ぐことは、アーキエイドが発足当時から掲げている重要なミッションの1つであり、「事前復興」として次期災害の減災に重要な役割を果たすものとなるでしょう。

発災から4年。巨大災害からの復興にあたって、建築家たちがその責任を全うすることへの支援者の皆様の強い期待に応え、ミッションからぶれることなく、しかし状況の進展に鋭敏に反応し常によりふさわしい形を模索しながら、建築家による復興支援ネットワークとして、アーキエイドは努力してまいります。皆様のますますのお力添えをお願いいたします。

2015年3月11日
東日本大震災における建築家による復興支援ネットワーク[アーキエイド]実行委員会

ArchiAid, Statement for the Fourth Anniversary of the Tohoku Disaster

Commemorating March 11th for the fourth time.

It has been four years since the Great East Japan Earthquake. Once again, we would like to express our heartfelt sympathy to those who suffered from the disaster.

In the affected areas, many restoration plans have reached the commencement of constructions, and some areas have completed their relocation and residents have started their new lives.
However, overlooking the progress of restoration in the entire areas affected, approximately 20% (based on number of houses) have completed the project of promoting the move of housing as collective relocation for disaster-prevention (relocation to high grounds / inland), and less than 10% of land re-plotting projects have completed, even excluding a part of Fukushima prefecture where residents are still evacuated because of the nuclear power plant accident. Also, 30,000 disaster public housing are scheduled to be built, but their completion rate is still lower than 20%, meaning a large number of people are still being forced to live in temporary housings.

The pioneering projects ArchiAid has worked on are slowly but definitely showing substantiality. Each and every one of our architects has contemplated how we can utilize our profession, and launched various projects staying close to the affected areas from right after the earthquake. Most of the projects started out by researching the areas, and continued by imagining the visions of reconstruction beneficial to the future of those areas, together with the residents who had suffered from the disaster. Even now many architects are continuing to stay active in order to realize those visions.

From the second year after the earthquake,the reconstruction projects run by the government have started in full scale, becoming the engine of an immense system. The top-down-type reconstruction plan in which the central government orders the local government of the disaster-struck area seemed like a temporary expedient based on a uniform template, in exchange for speed. In regards to this, ArchiAid’s projects have always strived to provide a bottom-up-type support that considered each area’s trait and solved issues transversally, even including those that were starting to surface prior to the earthquake.
The results of four years of support are starting to establish various forms, such as high ground relocation conforming to each area and building structures human resources and industries that play important roles in the future, and revival of memories.These accomplishments are as mentioned in this annual report and on our website.

Now heading towards the fifth year after the disaster, and while tangible developments of massive restoration projects are solemnly being conducted, the priority of the affected areas is shifting from hard aspects to soft, calling for activities that are rooted in the area more than before, and the supporters for those. Meanwhile, many support organizations that had put their efforts in reconstruction from right after the earthquake have fulfilled their roles and are now handing their batons to the locals, starting to withdraw strategically.
As each and every project fixes itself in that specific area, we at ArchiAid are also thinking that our general role as the platform is coming close to the end of the chapter.

Last year, the government released the damage estimation of the Nankai Trough Earthquake. In the worst-case scenario the death toll would be 330,000 -- over ten times of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The government is setting a numerical target to decrease the damage estimation by 80% in ten years, but the number would still be triple the damage suffered by Tohoku. ArchiAid boasts a collection of disaster-related knowledge acquired through actual practice. Reviewing and passing down these knowledge is one of the crucial missions we have been holding up since the establishment of ArchiAid, and this should come to fulfill an essential role in “pre-disaster recovery”, the mitigation of the next natural disaster.

Four years from the great earthquake – in facing recovery from this massive disaster, and in an effort to meet strong expectations from the people of Tohoku for us architects to fulfill our responsibility, we, ArchiAid, will keep focusing on our mission while keenly responding to every development of situation and always groping for even more appropriate measures. We will continue to exert our efforts as a reconstruction support network of architects. We thank you in advance for your support.

March 11th, 2015
ArchiAid – Relief and Recovery by Architects for Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami– Committee Member